By Helen Lawton-Smith
Universities are more and more anticipated to be on the center of networked buildings contributing to society in significant and measurable methods via learn, the educating and improvement of specialists, and information innovation. whereas there's not anything new in universities’ hyperlinks with undefined, what's fresh is their position as territorial actors. it's executive coverage in lots of international locations that universities - and in a few nations nationwide laboratories - stimulate local or neighborhood financial improvement. Universities, Innovation and the economic system explores the results of this expectation. It websites this new function in the context of broader political histories, evaluating how nations in Europe and North the United States have balanced the normal roles of training and examine with that of exploitation of analysis and defining a territorial position. Helen Lawton-Smith highlights how strain from the nation and from has produced new paradigms of responsibility that come with tasks for local improvement. This ebook makes use of empirical facts from reviews carried out in North the USA and Europe to supply an summary of the altering geography of university-industry hyperlinks.
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Universities are more and more anticipated to be on the center of networked constructions contributing to society in significant and measurable methods via examine, the instructing and improvement of specialists, and data innovation. whereas there's not anything new in universities’ hyperlinks with undefined, what's contemporary is their position as territorial actors.
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Additional info for Universities & the Economy (Routledge Studies in Business Organization and Networks)
This is because ﬁrms and researchers are entwined in thick networks of international relationships that cut across national barriers (Brusoni and Geuna forthcoming). While some of these networks are associated with the activities of transnational corporations who collaborate directly with universities in non-home countries and through consortia such as EU and international programmes, in other cases small ﬁrms are engaged in similar kinds of collaborative activity (see for example Lawton Smith 2000).
The range of interested parties in industry–science relationships (ISR) is indicated by OECD (2002a, 7) which states that To benchmark ISR is to compare their relative efﬁciency in meeting and reconciling the needs of the main stakeholders (government, industry, public research organizations, civil society), and to relate differences in performance to observable characteristics of industryscience linkages, which are amenable to public policy. To this end, industry and science linkages should be evaluated along three dimensions: nature and relative importance of channels of interactions; their New paradigms in the twenty-ﬁrst century 25 incentive structures; and their institutional arrangements.
Noncodiﬁable) knowledge through personal mobility and face-to-face contacts. The beneﬁts therefore tend to be geographically and linguistically localized. Thus networks, which have many different qualities and strengths, which link university research and industrial practice are embedded within particular locations linking people who are expert in different aspects of the innovation process. Granovetter’s 1973 essay on the ‘strength of weak ties’ argued that weak ties are indispensable to individuals’ opportunities, are more ﬂexible than strong formal ties and distant contacts are particularly useful because they provide access to new ﬂows of information.
Universities & the Economy (Routledge Studies in Business Organization and Networks) by Helen Lawton-Smith