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By Arthur B. Markman

Wisdom illustration is key to the examine of brain. All theories of mental processing are rooted in assumptions approximately how details is saved. those assumptions, in flip, impression the explanatory energy of theories. This publication fills a niche within the present literature via offering an summary of sorts of data illustration strategies and their use in cognitive versions.

equipped round kinds of representations, this publication starts with a dialogue of the rules of information illustration, then provides discussions of alternative ways in which wisdom illustration has been used. either symbolic and connectionist methods to illustration are mentioned and a suite of innovations concerning the means representations could be used is gifted. This paintings can be utilized because the foundation for a direction on wisdom illustration or should be learn independently. it is going to be helpful to scholars of psychology in addition to humans in similar disciplines--computer technology, philosophy, anthropology, and linguistics--who wish an creation to innovations for wisdom representation.

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Although the representing world is a space, the represented world need not be a space. Indeed, in many of the examples in this chapter, the represented world is not space, but rather concepts or word meanings. In addition to thinking about how space can be used as a representation, I also examine the processes that can be applied to a spatial representation. What is meant by spatial representation? First, think about the notion of a space. From where I sit now, I see my computer and keyboard. To the left is a telephone and in front of that a coffee mug.

Indeed, the entire algorithmic level of description has changed, as we have gone from the analog representation embodied in grooves on a record to the digital representation used by compact discs. Copyrighted Material 24 CHAPTER 1 The usual order of development is computational-level descriptions followed by lower level descriptions. However, descriptions of algorithms can suggest that a system is too computationally intensive to be feasible. In this case, other potential algorithms that are viable may change the computational-level description of a system.

Another aspect of the mathematical concept of space is that it is not always necessary to calculate distance as it is calculated in the world. In daily life, people calculate distance "as the crow flies" : They draw a straight line from point x to point y, and the length of the line is the distance between points. This is the standard Euclidean notion of distance . 4) [ where N is the number of dimensions, and Xi and y, are the values for points x and y along dimension i. In two dimensions, this is the familiar Pythagorean formula for the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle, Copyrighted Material 41 SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS but this equation can be generalized to consider noneuclidean distances.

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Knowledge representation by Arthur B. Markman

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