Read e-book online Fundamentals of Philosophy PDF

By Alexander Spirkin

ISBN-10: 5010025825

ISBN-13: 9785010025823

The publication deals a scientific exposition of the principles of dialectical and ancient materialism. It starts with deliberations at the nature of philosophical wisdom, the position of worldview, and the aim of technique. there's additionally a short excursus into the background of philosophy. hoping on a wealth of theoretical and useful fabrics, the writer offers an all-sided research of such primary options as being and recognition, topic and movement, cognition and job; step-by-step, he identifies the most rules, legislation and different types of dialectics, and heavily stories the socioeconomic, political and cultural facets of society's existence opposed to the historical past of the worldwide difficulties of recent instances. The ebook indicates conclusively constant medical philosophy didn't increase as a mechanical accumulation of formerly stumbled on grains of the reality yet via their serious research and artistic elaboration less than the altering ancient conditions.

The booklet was once presented a prize at a contest of textbooks for college students of upper academic establishments.

A.G. Spirkin (1918-2004), Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is a well known Soviet thinker and psychologist.

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For Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), the central idea was elevation of man through his involvement in all things terrestrial and celestial. The fact that man is free in his choices makes him cosmically unbound, and asserts his creative capacity for self-determination. The pantheistic views of that thinker were close to those of Nicholas of Cusa. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) is universally known for the revolution he brought about in astronomy by asserting the he46 liocentric system. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), author of the famous Essais, endeavoured to prove that human thought must be constantly perfected on the basis of objective cognition of the laws of nature to which the lives and activities of men were also subject.

1 The European philosophy of the 17th and 18th centuries. The development of experimental knowledge demanded the replacement of the scholastic method of thinking by a new one, directly addressed to the real world. The principles of materialism and elements of dialectics were revived, and developed, in a new atmosphere. Increasing knowledge of nature confirmed the truth of materialism and rejected the basic propositions of idealism, but the Pantheism (fr. Gk. pan "all", theos "God")—identification of the world and God: everything is God—the only thing that exists.

H e expressed certain profound ideas of dialectical nature. H e insisted, for instance, that the world consists of tiny elements or monads—spiritual elements of being possessing activeness and independence, continually changing and capable of suffering, perception and consciousness. As distinct from Spinoza, Leibniz thus added to the concept of substance that of active force, or the Aristotelian principle of the self-motion of matter. But Leibniz removed the pantheistically perceived God from Spinoza's single substance.

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Fundamentals of Philosophy by Alexander Spirkin

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