By Naveed A. Sherwani
This paintings covers all elements of actual layout. The booklet is a middle reference for graduate scholars and CAD execs. for college kids, thought and algorithms are awarded in an intuitive demeanour. For CAD pros, the fabric provides a stability of thought and perform. an in depth bibliography is supplied that's worthwhile for locating complicated fabric on a subject. on the finish of every bankruptcy, routines are supplied, which diversity in complexity from easy to analyze level.От себя: В этой книге неплохо описаны алгоритмы размещения и трассировки в современных схемах. Рассматриваются алгоритмы Кернигана-Лина(Фидуччи-Маттеуса), алгоритм симуляции отжига металла, алгоритмы Ли(с модификациями) и Соукупа.
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Extra info for Algorithms for VLSI physical design automation, Third edition
An important weakness issue arises in those schemes due to the absence of secrecy in the way the elementary pattern is repeated across the image. This enables any opponent to compute an estimate of the watermark by averaging the signal over the different period repetitions. This opponent would then be able to remove important watermark power from 30 Chapter 3. 2-D periodic patterns for image watermarking the document or perform a copy-attack  on other documents. The first part of this chapter shows that it is possible to introduce secrecy through a generalization in the construction process of periodic structures.
In fig. b, a scaling of 111% followed by a rotation of degrees and appropriate cropping was applied to the watermarked image. c. The 64 bits payload could succesfully be extracted. 16: Rotation (7°) and scaling (111%) applied to the watermarked image. The first step in the detection process consists in the computation of the autocorrelation function of the estimated watermark. Subsequently, a decorrelating filter is applied in order to further reduce the contribution of the cover image. Peaks are extracted using a sliding observation window and a local threshold.
17, expected locations are illustrated by circles. The challenge is to identify the peaks that result from the autocorrelation of the periodic pattern. 32) with and ✂ taking integer values. 32. This description supposes that the origin ✝ 52 Chapter 3. 17: Detection of peaks in the autocorrelation function. ✂ ✂ ( ☎ ) is part of the grid. 33) The problem can be stated as follows: given a set of points , corresponding to detected local maxima in the auto-correlation function, find the largest subset of such that all points belong to the same regular grid and ✟ ✒ .
Algorithms for VLSI physical design automation, Third edition by Naveed A. Sherwani