By J. Bruce Amstutz
Whilst Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in overdue 1979, the invasion was once, instantly, an try and store a tottering Marxist govt and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.
Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts off his therapy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet profession with an ancient review of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand document of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and fiscal views. one of the very important concerns Dr. Amstutz discusses are the various Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.
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Additional resources for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation
By then, the initial Afghan enthusiasm that had greeted the Bolshevik revolution long since had evaporated. In the 1930s two successive Afghan kings viewed the atheistic and oppressive Soviet regime with aversion and distrust. By the mid-1930s all Soviet civilians and military technicians brought in by Amanullah had returned to the USSR, and were not replaced; the Afghan air force now was manned solely by Afghans. A Soviet proposal in 1936 to establish trade missions in several Afghan cities was rejected.
Though it was split for a decade after 1967 into two parties. This objective was consonant vsiih the long-standing Soviet aim of spreading pro-Soviet international communism. In Afghanistan Soviet monetary aid to the partv was given discreetly so as not openly to annoy the government in power. AFGHANISTAN PAYS NO HEED TO WARNINGS ABOUT SOVIET INTENTIONS AND SUBVERSION In 1956 and several limes thereafter down to 1977 American diplomats in Kabul warned Afghan leaders about the risks of Soviet 30 Afghanistan economic and military penetration.
On balance, Afghans believed that Soviet trade and economic aid were beneficial, although most Afghans preferred goods made in the West and Japan. Afghanistan consequently made a conscious effort to diversify its trade and economic aid donors. Next to the Soviet Union, Japan was Afghanistan's largest trading partner in 1978. HOW DID US ECONOMIC AID COMPARE TO THAT OF THE USSR? 23 This US aid represented 42 percent of the value of Soviet aid. A tew American aid projects were quite visible—notably the Helmand Valley irrigation system and the 312-mile Kabul-lo-Kandahar highway—but Afghan officials who were concerned about the large Soviet aid image complained in 1977 that loo much American aid went to low-visibility projects with only long-term benefits.
Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation by J. Bruce Amstutz