By Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC
This e-book bargains either skilled cardiologists and trainees alike the chance to spot and deal with the most typical pitfalls encountered with echocardiology in regimen medical perform. The publication covers a chain of demanding situations starting from technical problems to issues of echocardiographic interpretation with each one part featuring a chain of simulations to check the reader's realizing of the matter. The textual content is written in a hugely useful and didactic type as a way to aid the busy health professional by means of providing the data in a succinct, 'essentials basically' demeanour. The heavy use of high quality illustrations serves to make sure that the innovations defined are supported through real-life examples and hence with no trouble appropriate to the scientific setting.Edited by means of a world expert.Abundant use of full-colour permits exact illustration of pictures to have enough money certain dialogue of the thoughts involved.Didactic method guarantees supply of key info in workable parts hence saving time for the busy cardiologist.Includes the main widespread pitfalls linked to a number thoughts therefore making sure applicability to various medical settings and gear availability.
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Additional info for 100 Challenges in Echocardiography
6 Mitral condition. Recording in continuous Doppler coupled with 2D colour imaging. The stenotic gradient and pressure half-time (PHT) (and therefore the mitral surface area (MSA)) vary due to the continuous arrhythmia arising from atrial fibrillation. LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; MR, mitral regurgitation; MS, mitral stenosis. the stenosis (V2). g. 5 m/s) the use of the simplified equation leads to an overestimation of the gradient. The ‘complete’ Bernoulli formula 4(V22 – V12) should be used in this case.
The cross-sectional plane must be perpendicular to the extremity of the mitral valves. Several planimetric measurements should be made and the mean value retained. 7 Mitral planimetry sites. (a) Correct site giving the actual MSA. Sites underestimating the MSA: (b) intravalvular; (c) oblique transvalvular. LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle. 8 Planimetry of the stenotic mitral orifice according to the transverse, parasternal cross-section (zoomed 2D images). 32 cm2) due to using the oblique 2D projection of the mitral orifice in the same patient.
Sites underestimating the MSA: (b) intravalvular; (c) oblique transvalvular. LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle. 8 Planimetry of the stenotic mitral orifice according to the transverse, parasternal cross-section (zoomed 2D images). 32 cm2) due to using the oblique 2D projection of the mitral orifice in the same patient. 29 30 Cardiac valves • • • • • – The tracking of the early diastole, which corresponds to the maximum opening of the mitral valve. Mid-diastolic planimetry leads to an underestimation of the actual MSA.
100 Challenges in Echocardiography by Christophe Klimczak MD PhD, Petros Nihoyannopoulos MD FRCP FACC FESC